How to install a surveillance system?

These pages are a complete guide, and quite stubborn, for installing a surveillance system with analog cameras. The chapters in this tutorial will provide you with the necessary knowledge to install from A to Z a surveillance system, just like a professional. For unrelated customers, this tutorial will be a real help.

For further details, tips and explanations, the xmeyepc.com team will be available.

Contents:

  1. We make a plan!
    1.1 Choosing the type of cable to be assembled
    1.2 Choosing the location for the DVR and the power supply
    1.3 Choosing the positions for surveillance cameras
    1.4 Choosing cable routes
  2. Required tools
  3. Equipment and Materials Required
    3.1 Equipment
    3.2 Materials
  4. Specifying cable lengths
  5. Holding of apparent doses (optional)
  6. Attach the chambers to position
  7. Video signal connections
  8. Food connections
  9. Preparing the DVR
  10. Commissioning and adjustment
  11. Possible issues
  12. We make a plan!

You’ve decided to install a self-monitoring system. Before you get started, before you pick up a screwdriver, it’s a good idea to make a “fight plan”. If you set a few clear targets, everything will go smoother, and the end result will be good.

1.1 Choosing the type of cable to be assembled

If you’ve already bought the surveillance system and the package came with cable, then the choice has already been made. You will need to use the cables in the package.
If the surveillance system does not have a cable in the package, then you have to choose your wiring and buy the required cable lengths.

Analog surveillance cameras need 2 connections.

Video connection through which the video signal from the camera to the DVR.
Power connection, through which the power goes from the power supply to the room.

These two connections are absolutely necessary, regardless of the type of cable, but these 2 connections can be made using 2 types of wiring. Both offer the same result if the fitting is done correctly.

Option 1:
Copper coaxial cable with BNC connectors + power cable with power plugs.
Coaxial cable is plugged using BNC connectors.
The power cord is plugged in using straight feed connectors.

This is the classic version with the longest on the market. It is the variant that most installers know. Coaxial cable and power cord wiring means more work because the coaxial cable is a bit harder and more difficult to handle, and plugging the BNC connectors on the coaxial cable is somewhat tedious. As an advantage, the use of this method is often more affordable as a price.
When we get to the tutorial on connections, we’ll explain in detail the fitting.

The coaxial cable is capable of transmitting video signals over hundreds of meters.
Correct supply of cameras can be a problem. We have to choose the right cable. The necessary information about choosing the right power cord can be found in the article below.

COMPLETE SUPPORT GUIDE FOR SURVEILLANCE ROOMS

Caution – Choose coaxial cable and copper supply. Avoid aluminum or aluminum alloys. Get the best pictures with copper cable.

Option 2:
UTP copper cable with Video-Balun adapters and power connectors.

The UTP cable has 4 pairs of 2 wires, which we can use to connect 2 surveillance cameras at the same time. A video camera pair 1, a camera 1 pair, a video camera pair 2, a camera pair 2.

We recommend that you do not complicate. Use a UTP cable for each camera. From that cable you will use a pair of wires for the video signal and a pair of wires for power. This avoids any complication caused by interference.
When we get to the tutorial on connections, we’ll explain in detail the fitting.

Caution – Choose copper UTP cat5E cable. Avoid aluminum or aluminum alloys. Get the best pictures with copper cable.

1.2 Choosing the location for the DVR and the power supply

An analogue surveillance system needs a central node, a technical point where the DVR unit and the power supply will be positioned.
At that point all the cables from the cameras will be reached, there will be connections to the DVR and to the power supply.

So choose a place to install your DVR and power supply, a secured place and:
-with access to stable 220V

For a power supply, a 220V socket is sufficient, but it is recommended (if you have the budget) to mount a UPS between the socket and the surge arrester to stabilize the current from the socket and to reserve it if there is a current leakage and you want the system video remains in use.

-wetted

I do not think we need to detail why moisture is not indicated for electronic equipment.

  • Temperature below 0 degrees
    Do not allow the DVR to operate in temperatures below 0 degrees. In the event of a power failure, due to the difference in temperature between the DVR and the cold ambient environment condensation will occur inside the DVR. When the electric current returns this condes will cause a short circuit on the DVR’s motherboard, so its failure.
  • Excessive heat
    Do not leave the DVR exposed to the sun or in extremely cold environments. A shady place with ambient temperatures between 0 and 30 degrees Celsius is the most recommended.

-with access to an internet source
By accessing an internet source we understand a cable connection (UTP) to an internet router if you plan to connect the system to the Internet. This connection is via a UTP Internet cable that will connect the LAN port of the DVR to one of the router LAN’s LAN ports.

General tips:
Most of the time, the DVR is mounted in the same place as the router, a desk, a desk, a metal painting, etc.
If you have the option, mount the DVR in the bridge, route all cables through the bridge, and from the DVR you get with a single UTP network cable to the router. This avoids the clutter of wires and connects the system to the Internet.

1.3 Choosing the positions for surveillance cameras.

Of course you will choose these positions according to the areas you want to monitor.
Inside the rooms are usually mounted in the corners of the rooms, or above the cash registers, or above certain offices, etc.
In the case of outdoor cameras, it is advisable to try to place them in places that are as safe as possible from the weather, and for optimal angles and coverage we recommend the following article dedicated to the optimal selection of the surveillance camera positions:

EFFICIENT POSITION OF SURVEILLANCE ROOMS

1.4 Choosing cable routes

Think about the routes you will use for wiring the cameras. You will have to get a cable route from the DVR to each surveillance camera. As explained above, a cable route involves:

  • use of coaxial cable + power cable
    or
  • using a UTP for both data and power.

Here’s a helpful schema:

schema generala instalare sistem supraveghere


Measure the cable lengths you will need. Take into account the routes you will use and think that you will not get from the camera to the DVR in the right line, you will have elbows and ocasions. Take a margin of error.

If you have a house or home under construction (or renovation) you have the advantage that you can pull the cables through the structure of the building.
If you have a bridge, do not hesitate to use it. You can picture the cables through the bridge, hidden from view.
If you have a plinth or parquet, you can also use these to cover the cables.
If you do not have one of the above variations, it’s time to lay the cables on the walls and cover them with a cable.

  1. Tools and accessories required

No assembly can be done with bare hands. We need tools. Depending on the complexity of the project, simpler or more sophisticated tools may be required.
You may not need everything that appears in the list below, but some things are indispensable. I marked them with * the necessary ones.

  • Small and medium star screwdriver *
  • Small and medium right screwdriver
    -clears, cutter or cutter cable *
    -battery with battery *
    -Power electric bomber
    -a PC monitor with VGA jack for initial DVR configuration *

After setup, you can drop the monitor. Access to the surveillance system can be done through the network or the Internet. If you want a monitor or TV permanently attached to the DVR, there is no problem. You can use HDMI and VGA video outputs.
Many customers keep an HDMI connection with the TV because they want to watch the video on the couch.

Without going into tooling, you may need accessories such as:

  • Catch grip (also called “mice” and come on white or black)
  • apparent appearances (to protect camera connections)
    -pack cable (for masking threads, if you put the visible cables on the walls)
  • a flexible tube (for protection of cables. Copex is found on various diameters and may even be metallic for better protection)
    -divides and screws (for ceiling/wall mounting)
  • Perforated metal band (for clamping cameras on curved surfaces: poles, leaks, etc.).
    self-tapping screws
    -silicon universal the in tube
    -insulating tape (if you have extension cables)
surubelnite
bormasina
cutter
monitor
soricei
pat cablu
autofiletant_lemn
doza aparenta
banda metalica perforata
diblu si holsurub
copex
silicon

Caution – We do not recommend cable extension by inadvertently. If you have to make a cable extension and do not want to withdraw the entire length, we recommend using an aperture protected by an apparent dose.

  1. Equipment and Materials Required

I went through the list of tools and small accessories that you could use. Now make inventory of equipment and materials.

3.1 EQUIPMENT:

A functional surveillance system necessarily requires the following equipment:

-DVR recording unit with feeder and mouse.
A new DVR, whether it is more expensive or cheaper, has to come in a box with a DVR, a mouse, a feeder, possibly a manual. More recently, the printed manuals have been replaced by electronic textbooks. If you do not find a printed manual or a technical support CD, you should contact your supplier for a digital handbook.
-Hard Disk SATA compatible with the DVR. The HDD mounts inside the DVR and has the task of storing the recordings. If you bought a surveillance package with HDD included, then that HDD should already be tested on your DVR and you will not have any problems.

  • analog surveillance cameras. Obviously, we need surveillance cameras for a surveillance system. But we mention “analog cameras” because there are also digital cameras (also called IP cameras). This tutorial is for installing analog surveillance cameras. These can be easily recognized by the BNC data connection, just as in the picture below.
conectori bnc camera
  • the room power source. Surveillance cameras need constant and stable electrical power.
  • The camera power supply can be:
  • -a common power supply for all rooms, used together with a power supply for simultaneous power supply to multiple rooms
  • -An individual feeder for each room
  • -a source of the plate in a metal box
alimentator mare
distribuitor alimentare
alimentator mic
sursa alimentare camere

The power supply must provide the cameras:
-the correct power supply

  • enough room for all rooms

It does not matter what option you choose to power the cameras. It is important that all surveillance cameras receive 12V DC voltage and have enough amps to operate in day and night.
12V DC (DC) voltage is the voltage used for most cameras on the market. If you have a camera that uses a different voltage, you should be careful to use a power supply with the right voltage. A voltage too low and the cameras will not have a picture or will have a picture with imperfections. A too high voltage and the cameras will burn.

In our surveillance packages you will find a common power supply for all rooms. This way you will have a single socket. This power supply is a 12V power supply and enough amps, even more, for all cameras.

The amps that a source can provide are very important. The current consumption of a camera is measured in milli Amps (mA), so if a room consumes more current, it will need more mA. Maximum consumption is at night when the infrared illuminator goes into operation. The power supply must be able to provide those Amps that cameras need for efficient operation. The maximum consumption of a room is passed to the box or back of the camera.

Example: If we have 4 cameras, each with a maximum consumption of 0.5 Amps, then we will cumulate a total consumption of 4 x 0.5 A = 2 A. This would suggest that it is ok to use a 2A source for the system our. It’s not like that. We recommend a power supply of 3-4 Amps.
The power supply does not exactly charge all the Amps marked on the packaging. Most of the times we meet sources that can barely offer half of the promised Amps. In addition, for a long lifetime, it is good that a feeder is not required to the maximum of consumers. For these two reasons, we recommend the use of sources with amperage almost double the calculated theoretical consumption.

If you purchased a complete system, the power supply from the package must be properly sized by the equipment supplier.

3.2 MATERIALS:

-cable for installation. As discussed in the first part of the tutorial, you have two options to woo the surveillance system: coaxial cable + power cord, or UTP cable.

If you go to coaxial cable + power cord you will need:

-RG59 or RG6 coaxial cable coaxial cable with copper core. Avoid the aluminum. You will need a cable length for each room. The coaxial cable must reach from the camera to the DVR.

  • 2-wire copper power cable. The copper copper diameter is important.
    For small distances between the power supply and the camera (max. 20 meters), you can use 2-wire twisted copper wire of 0.5mm thick (2×0.5mm copper).
    If you have bigger power supply between the power supply and the camera (20-30 meters), we recommend a copper wire with 2 threads of 0.75mm thick (2×0.75mm copper).
    If you have even greater distances between the power supply and the camera (over 30 meters), we recommend the 2 x 1mm copper wire.
    You can use a separate cable length for each camera or a single cable length that passes through each camera, feed it, and then go to the next room. This procedure is for more advanced installers. We recommend that you do not complicate and go on the solution of a separate power cord route for each room.
    If you install outdoor cameras with long cable lengths and exposed passages between poles, it is advisable to use a cable with a solid protective sleeve, even with a socket, for the route to have resistance.

Coaxial CableCable Power Coaxial Cable

In the above images, from left to right, coaxial cable, power cable 2 x 0.5mm copper, roll coaxial cable with attached feed.

If you go to the UTP cable you will need:

-cat5E copper UTP cable. Avoid the aluminum.
You will need a cable length for each room. The UTP cable needs to get from the DVR to each camera.
The UTP cable is built with 8 wires (divided into 4 pairs) and can be used for both video signal transmission and power supply to chambers.
To avoid long-distance power problems, we recommend using a UTP cable for 20 to 30 meters between the DVR and the FTP camera and cable (a thicker, thicker UTP cable) for 30-50 meters between the DVR and the room. If you have a distance of more than 50 meters, the Internet cable for the power supply is no longer an option and you will need to use a separate power cable of the right diameter.

The cable can be purchased from us or you can find it at any electrical products store.

  • Food distributor or food distribution ruler

Because our systems contain a common power supply for all cameras, we also offer a power distributor to attach to the power supply from the package and get more power outlets for more cameras.
The purpose of the distributor is to “share” power to multiple cameras at once. The power distributor connects to the 12V output of the power supply that you have in the package.

-Mother food connectors
In addition to the distributor, the mother power supply connectors come in. They attach to the power distributor outputs and are built with a +/- rigidity. At the +/- Ripple of the connector, you will connect the power wires that will reach the camera.

-detail plug connectors
You will use the dad connectors to power the cameras. Dock connectors are inserted into the camcorder’s power jacks. Just like mother connectors, Dad connectors have a +/- rigidity. At this +/- line, you will connect the power wires coming from the +/- rope to the mother connector.

-connectors for each camera (2 connectors per camera)
The data connectors of a surveillance camera are chosen depending on the cable used. All analog cameras have a Dc BNC plug, but if we use a coaxial cable we will need mother-in BNC connectors, and if we use the UTP cable we will need to use Video-Balun connectors.
Each camera will need 2 connectors, regardless of type, either BNC or Video-Balun.
A connector will be plugged at the end of the DVR cable and the second will be plugged at the cable end of the surveillance camera.

distribuitor alimentare
conectori alimentare
conectori bnc
video baluni

In the above images, from left to right, power distributor, mother / father feed connectors, BNC connectors, video-balun connectors.

All docking procedures will be detailed below.

  1. Specifying cable lengths

Let’s start physical work!
As mentioned above, each surveillance camera must receive a data connection and a power connection.
You chose what cable to use and chose the paths you will follow.
You can start the routing of the cables from the cameras or the DVR, anyway, it will be more convenient.
Take care to lay the threads safely, with no points where the wires have contact and rubbing with a sharp surface. In such situations, because of the wind the cables are still moving and the friction will cause the coating to deteriorate. The water can enter the cable, the cables can be interrupted, etc.
Do not leave any portions of cable that can be grasped, pulled, plucked.
Use strap ties to secure the cable firmly in place.
Use plastic or metallic copex to protect cables.
Use a cable bed with adhesive for stylish decoration on the walls. Wipe the adhesive cable temporarily into position using the adhesive, then firmly clamp using self-tapping screws.
Keep each end of cable, DVR and cameras, an extra cable length for easier plugging.

  1. Holding of apparent doses (optional)

The surveillance cameras are in contact with signal and power cables using data connectors and power supply. These connections must not be visible and must not be exposed to damp and dirt. Why?

  • because in an outdoor environment with moisture and dust, these connections will deteriorate, so the signal and power connections of the camera will be interrupted.
  • because someone can sabot more easily the rooms
  • because it is not aesthetic; lovers leave cables hanging around.

If you do not have a safe place where you can hide camera data and power connections (a false ceiling, bridge, etc.), it is recommended to use apparent doses to protect and mask connections.
Indoor chambers can be mounted directly on a false ceiling, and the connections hidden in the false ceiling.
On the outside we do not always have such an advantage.
Wherever there is an accessible version of protection and masking of connections, we recommend the use of apparent doses. There are also aesthetic doses in different colors.

You have 2 dose-rate variants. Grasp the doses near the surveillance camera. Signal and Feeder Power Cables will penetrate into the dose through the back of the dose or one of the lower glands. We choose a lower gush to keep the rain water out of reach.

If the cables go directly out of the wall and you want to cover the dose cords, then insert the cables in the dose by the back of the dose, tap the dose on the wall and apply some silicone to the top of the dose

You will also insert the data and power cables from the surveillance camera. The dose will be the signal and feeding jacks, then cover the dose with the dose protector cap. We talk about jacks broadly below.

Grasp the dose on the wall, and the surveillance camera directly on the dose cover. This is only effective if you use screw caps. If you use capped dose caps with the risk of dropping the dose cap, with the camera all over, under the weight of the camera. In the summer, in particular, due to the expansion of the materials, the dose caps are widening and can fall more easily.

You will need to insert the data and power cords in the dose, just like in the previous step. The camera will be trapped on the dose cover with small self-tapping screws, the camera cables will be passed through the dose cover, the connections will be made into the dose, then the dose cap with the attached camera will fit into the position. Apply silicone between the doses and the foot of the surveillance camera. The result will be as in the picture below:

camera_pe_doza
dome_pe_doza
camera_dome_doza
  1. Attach the chambers to position

Depending on the surface to be attached to the cameras, you will need to use the appropriate grip method.
For wood, you need to use self-tapping screws
For BCA and concrete you will need to use holsurub and dowel
For rigips you will need to use “plaster” snails
If you have insulation, you will need to use the appropriate lengths of the holsurubs, so that the camera is caught in the wall, not in isolation.
The camera must be firmly attached, without play.
It is ideal to choose protected positions for rooms, less exposed to weather, rain, snow.
We recommend once again our article dedicated to choosing the optimal position for a surveillance camera.

EFFICIENT POSITION OF SURVEILLANCE ROOMS

  1. Video signal connections

At this point you must have all the threads laid and passed through the protective dose.
If you use coaxial cable for video signal, connections are made using BNC connectors.
In the link below you will find a detailed tutorial on how to fit a coaxial cable with BNC connectors.

COAXIAL CABLE MUSHROOM

If you use UTP internet cable, connections are made using Video-Balun connectors.
In the link below you will find a detailed tutorial on how to fit a UTP cable with Video-Balun connectors.

UTP CABLE MUFFING

Data links are made for each camera, both at the cable end of the camera and at the cable end of the DVR. This means that for each camera you need 2 data connectors, be they BNC or Video-Balun.

Your surveillance package must contain all data connectors required for all cameras.

  1. Food connections

The power connections ensure that all surveillance cameras receive power from the power supply

The power connections are first to the cameras, then to the power supply.

To power a camera you will need to:

  • Use a dad feed connector
  • The dad connector has a dad-type power jack and a small ribbon, marked + / – (plus / minus), where you need to plug in the power cord.
  • the power cord has 2 wires (if we use a UTP cable we will pick a pair of the 4 available to use it as a power cord).
  • From the 2 threads, one thread will be + (plus) and one thread will be – (minus).
  • you choose which thread to use for + and which thread for -. You have to remember what choice you made. You will have to follow the same orders from the camera and the power supply. Usually, for power, the red thread is used for + and the black thread for -. If you do not have these colors, choose yours.

!!! Attention – Always observe the signs. PLUS (+) always goes to PLUS (+) and MINUS (-) always goes to MINUS (-), otherwise you will cause a short circuit.

  • Use a knife or cutter to cut 1-2 millimeters of the wire sheath. Copper inside the threads must be visible. That copper will make contact with the inside of the ruler.
  • use a small starter screwdriver to loosen each screw from the connector line, insert the thread you chose for the + yarn + line, the yarn you chose for – into the ruler – and then squeeze firmly each screw so that the threads can not come out. Do not over-tighten. You can break the thread.
  • After connecting the power cord to the power connector line, insert the male connector into the 12V jack on the camera.
  • Repeat the procedure for each room. Each room has its own power cable, so the procedure is the same.

We move to the connections from the power supply:

If you have a power supply

  • the power supply must be built with a ruler with one or more marked outlets +/-. At this line you will need to connect the power cables coming from the cameras, respecting the polarity (+ to +, – to -).
    If you have multiple outputs at source, you need to connect one room at each output.
    If you have one output you will have to connect all the cameras to the same output. This means that all + wires from the cameras will connect to the + output of the source, and all the wires from the cameras will connect to the output of the source.

If you have a shared feeder for all rooms
-You’ll use mother-type connectors.
-Mother type connectors are used together with a power distributor and inserted into the power distributor outputs.
Distributor has a 12V input and more 12V outputs. Everything a distributor does is to share power from the feeder in several directions.
-input the distributor into the power supply outlet.
-Input the mother connectors into the outlet of the distributor.
-connect the supply wires of the cameras to the connectors.

  1. Preparing the DVR

The purpose of the DVR is to process, display and store the video signal coming from the cameras. Store the recordings on an internal HDD that you need to mount. The DVR comes from the factory without mounted HDD.

HDD mount in DVR:

  • unpack the DVR box by removing the retaining screws
  • Identify the location for the HDD near the motherboard
  • Grab the HDD in its place using the screws in the DVR box. The screws are in a bag in the DVR’s accessory case.
  • Connect the HDD to the DVR’s motherboard using data and power cables. The cables are located in the DVR’s accessory case.
  • Make sure that the HDD is firmly in place and that all connections are done well
  • Replace the DVR cover and grab the screws

Here’s a detailed tutorial on Mounting a HDD in a DVR
INSTALLING THE HDD IN THE DVR

You now need to connect DVR camcorders to camcorders on video inputs on the rear panel. Depending on the DVR type, you will have 4, 8, 16 BNC dad inputs. The camera cable plugs lock into the video inputs without playing.

Connect the mouse from the box to one of the USB ports. We will use the mouse to interact with the DVR menu.

For tests and settings, you will connect the sample monitor to the VGA output or a TV to the HDMI output.

Place the DVR on the final position.

The monitor can only be used for tests and settings. The monitor should not remain connected to the DVR after you finish the settings. All system functions can be accessed and fully used from the network interface. Of course, if you want, you can keep a connected monitor or TV and watch the cameras by this method, and with your mouse interact with your DVR (DVRs support a wireless mouse, if you want to control the remote system more great).

  1. Commissioning and adjustment

Now we can plug in the power supply to the cameras and the DVR power supply.
If you have done the correct installation after the DVR will load the menu, you will see images from the cameras on its screen.
With image from every camera on the monitor you can adjust the cameras in their final position according to your wishes. Adjusting the cameras is done, depending on the model, with a screwdriver or screwdriver (found in the box). It is helpful to have a person standing next to the monitor and help with directions (left, right, above, below, etc.). Otherwise, you can complete the system settings, especially the connection of the internet surveillance system, and adjust the cameras by yourself using your mobile phone.

An analogue surveillance system is configured primarily from the DVR menu. Setting up a DVR is a step for you to refer to the DVR manual. Depending on the manufacturer of the DVR, you can find it on the manufacturer’s official website, on a DVR box CD, at your DVR provider. Our team is at your disposal with technical support.

As a landmark, to set up your DVR you will need to:

  • Choose a password
  • choose the operating language (English, Romanian, etc.)
  • Set the time and date
  • format and initialize the HDD for recording
  • Choose resolution and frames per second for registration
  • Configure network settings to connect to the Internet
  • Choose and configure camera recording mode: Continuous or Motion
  1. Possible issues

There are situations when the end result of the assembly is not the expected one. Here are some issues you can meet:

“I do not have a monitor image from any camera”
Most likely, the power of the cameras is not correctly made. Check that all the cameras have infrared LEDs on. Cover the camera lens with your hands so the camera’s light sensor thinks it’s night, and see if the infrared LEDs light up. If they light up, then the power supply is right and the problem is somewhere else. If they do not turn on, then the cameras do not receive power and you need to check the power supply, the integrity of the power lines and the power connectors.
A faulty feeder implies warranty claim. We test all the feeders before we add them to packages.

“I do not have a monitor on the part of the room”
Check the power of the cameras by covering the camera lens and see if the IR LEDs light up. If they do not turn on, then chances are you have a power plug with wrong connections. Another variant is the signal side. Maybe the BNC jacks are not well made and the DVR does not receive a video signal. Make sure all the plugs are OK.

“DVR does not start”
Check the DVR’s feeder. It must charge 12V and minimum 2 Amps. Try to power the DVR with the surveillance camera feeder.